Owl diversity in Guatemala

Owls of Guatemala
Some owls of Guatemala: Fulvous Owl, Black-and-white Owl, Guatemalan Pygmy-Owl, Unspotted Saw-whet Owl, Stygian Owl, Bearded Screech-Owl, and Mexican Wood Owl.

PROEVAL RAXMU Bird Monitoring Program has updated the information on diversity, distribution, and conservation of owls in Guatemala, published in:

Eisermann, K. & C. Avendaño (2015) Los búhos de Guatemala. 381-434 in P. L. Enríquez (ed.) Los búhos neotropicales: diversidad y conservación. ECOSUR, San Cristóbal de las Casas, Chiapas, México.

Abstract.—This is a compilation of recent data on the distribution, ecology, and conservation status of owls (Strigiformes) in Guatemala, based on an extensive literature review and numerous unpublished observations. According to modern taxonomy (König et al. 2008), a total of 20 species of owls has been recorded in Guatemala; one species of the genus Tyto, Psiloscops (1 species), Megascops (4), Bubo (1), Pulsatrix (1), Strix (3), Lophostrix (1), Glaucidium (3), Aegolius (1), Athene (1), and Asio (3). Of the 20 species, 17 are resident in Guatemala. Nesting has been reported for 15 species, and it is assumed for two species. Three species are rare or accidental non-breeding visitors to Guatemala during the northern winter. The highlands are Guatemala's region with the highest species richness in owls, where 17 species have been recorded. In the Pacific and Atlantic slope lowlands 12 species have been recorded in each. Data on the presence and relative abundance of owls from 1989 to 2012 (and some from 2013) were analyzed from 102 sites. New site records were established for rarely reported species such as Bearded Screech-Owl (Megascops barbarus), Stygian Owl (Asio stygius), and Unspotted Saw-whet Owl (Aegolius ridgwayi). According to the mean of an abundance index value from 102 sites, the most abundant species in Guatemala are (in descendent order of abundance): Mexican Wood Owl (Strix squamulata), Ridgway's Pygmy-Owl (Glaucidium ridgwayi), Guatemalan Screech-Owl (Megascops guatemalae), Guatemalan Pygmy-Owl (Glaucidium cobanense), Black-and-white Owl (Strix nigrolineata), and Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus). The most abundant species in the highlands were: Mexican Wood Owl, Guatemalan Pygmy-Owl, Fulvous Owl (Strix fulvescens), Great Horned Owl, Ridgway's PygmyOwl, Unspotted Saw-whet Owl, and Whiskered Screech-Owl (Megascops trichopsis). In the Atlantic slope lowlands, the species with the highest abundance index were Mexican Wood Owl, Guatemalan Screech-Owl, Ridgway's Pygmy-Owl, Black-and-white Owl, and Central American Pygmy-Owl. In the Pacific slope lowlands the most abundant species were Mexican Wood Owl, Ridgway's Pygmy-Owl, and Pacific Screech-Owl (Megascops cooperi). Guatemala has an adequate legal framework to protect owl species (32% of the country is legally protected), but conservation is not efficient, causing serious threats to owl populations. Of 17 owl species regularly occurring in Guatemala, 11 are forest specialists and six are habitat generalists. In a vulnerability assessment applying IUCN Red List criteria on a national level, one species has been evaluated as Endangered (EN), 10 as Vulnerable (VU), four as Near Threatened (NT), two as Least Concern (LC), and three species were not evaluated for being vagrants. Habitat alteration through agriculture, mining, and oil drilling has been identified as main threat. Of the remaining forests, 14% (5 500 km2) were lost from 2000 to 2010, and the pressure on natural habitat will further increase. About 36 785 km2 (34% of Guatemala) are used or planned for exploration and exploitation by the mining and oil drilling industry. This area includes about 6 960 km2 or 20% of the country's remaining forests. In addition, owls in Guatemala are threatened by direct persecution because of the common belief that these birds attract death and destruction. The network of 21 Important Bird Areas (IBA) in Guatemala includes populations of all owl species. Two species have been recorded in more than 10 IBAs, 12 species in 5-9 IBAs, five in 2-4 IBAs, and one species in only one IBA. We consider the increase of the education level among the Guatemalan society as a main goal in order to protect habitat within the IBAs, and thus owl populations. A higher level of education would help to slow down population growth, increase environmental awareness, and consequently diminish pressure on natural areas.

Owl diversity in Guatemala
Eisermann, K. & C. Avendaño (2015) Los búhos de Guatemala. 381-434 in P. L. Enríquez (ed.) Los búhos neotropicales: diversidad y conservación. ECOSUR, San Cristóbal de las Casas, Chiapas, México.
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